Mahatma Gandhi was born on 02 October 1869 in Porbandar Kathiawar agency, British India and Gandhi full name is Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Mahatma Gandhi other names are Bapu, Gandhiji and he education is barrister-at-law, Mahatma Gandhi married Kasturba Gandhi and children are Hari Lal, mani Lal, Ramdas, Devdas. Mahatma Gandhi religion is Hinduism, with Jain influences. Born and raised in a Hindu merchant caste family in coastal Gujarat, western India, and trained in law at the Inner Temple, London
Gandhi Jayanthi Essay, Speech English, Hindi, Telugu Languages
Gandhi first employed nonviolent civil disobedience as an expatriate lawyer in South Africa, in the resident Indian community’s struggle for civil rights. After his return to India in 1915, he set about organising peasants, farmers, and urban labourers to protest against excessive land-tax and discrimination. Assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns for easing poverty, expanding women’s rights, building religious and ethnic amity, ending untouchability, but above all for achieving Swaraj or self-rule.
In London, Gandhi studied law and jurisprudence and enrolled at the Inner Temple with the intention of becoming a barrister. His time in London was influenced by the vow he had made to his mother. Gandhi tried to adopt “English” customs, including taking dancing lessons. However, he could not appreciate the bland vegetarian food offered by his landlady and was frequently hungry until he found one of London’s few vegetarian restaurants. Influenced by Henry Salt’s writing, he joined the Vegetarian Society, was elected to its executive committee, and started a local Bayswater chapter. Some of the vegetarians he met were members of the Theosophical Society, which had been founded in 1875 to further universal brotherhood, and which was devoted to the study of Buddhist and Hindu literature. They encouraged Gandhi to join them in reading the Bhagavad Gita both in translation as well as in the original. Not having shown interest in religion before, he became interested in religious thought.
Gandhi stayed out of active politics and, as such, the limelight for most of the 1920s. He focused instead on resolving the wedge between the Swaraj Party and the Indian National Congress, and expanding initiatives against untouchability, alcoholism, ignorance, and poverty. He returned to the fore in 1928. In the preceding year, the British government had appointed a new constitutional reform commission under Sir John Simon, which did not include any Indian as its member. The result was a boycott of the commission by Indian political parties. Gandhi pushed through a resolution at the Calcutta Congress in December 1928 calling on the British government to grant India dominion status or face a new campaign of non-cooperation with complete independence for the country as its goal. Gandhi had not only moderated the views of younger men like Subhas Chandra Bose and Jawaharlal Nehru, who sought a demand for immediate independence, but also reduced his own call to a one-year wait, instead of two.
The British did not respond. On 31 December 1929, the flag of India was unfurled in Lahore. 26 January 1930 was celebrated as India’s Independence Day by the Indian National Congress meeting in Lahore. This day was commemorated by almost every other Indian organisation. Gandhi then launched a new Satyagraha against the tax on salt in March 1930. This was highlighted by the famous Salt March to Dandi from 12 March to 6 April, where he marched 388 kilometres (241 mi) from Ahmedabad to Dandi, Gujarat to make salt himself. Thousands of Indians joined him on this march to the sea. This campaign was one of his most successful at upsetting British hold on India; Britain responded by imprisoning over 60,000 people.
Mahatma Gandhi signature:
Gandhi was a great leader, a saint and a great social reformer. He was pious, truthful and religious. He believed in simple living and high thinking. Everybody who came in contact with him were so deeply influenced by his personality. He was a Champion of democracy and was deadly opposed to dictatorial rule. Gandhi showed India and the World the path of truth and non-violence. He believed that it was truth alone that prevailed in the end.
Gandhi believed that real India lived in more than five lakhs villages uplift. According to him India’s real emancipation depended on Swadeshi i.e. boycott of foreign goods, use of khadi encouragement to village and cottage industries.
Gandhi began to work day and night for the freedom of his country. He and his brave followers went to jail again and again, and suffered terrible hardships. Thousands of them were starved, beaten, ill treated and killed, but they remained true to their master. At last his noble efforts bore fruit and on August 15,1947,
India became free and independent. Gandhi defeated the mighty British empire not with swords or guns , but by means of strange and utterly new weapons of truth and Ahimsa. He worked all through his life for Hindu- Muslim Unity and the abolition of untouchability. Gandhi worked hard for the upliftment of the Harijans, the name given by him to the untouchables. Gandhi declared untouchability a sin against God and Man.
The British passed the Rowlett Act in 1919 to deal with the revolutionaries. Gandhi made the Rowlett Act an issue and appealed to the people to observe peaceful demonstration on April 6, 1919.
Gandhi’s call for peaceful demonstration met with tremendous response. It led to mass demonstrations in Punjab and Delhi. The Jallianwala Massacre (1919) was a sequel of this agitation. The Indian people were shocked by the way the British conducted themselves. Gandhi them launched a non-co-operation in 1920 against the British rule. On 12th March 1930
Gandhi started his Civil Disobedience with his famous ‘Dandi March’ to break the salt laws. Many leaders and persons courted arrest. Then followed the Gandhi-Irwin Pact for the participation of the congress in the Second Round Table Conference in 1931. On March 1942, Sir Stafford Cripps came to India with his proposals which were rejected by all political parties. The failure of the Cripps Mission led to unprecedented disturbances. Disillusioned and disappointed, the congress passed at Bombay the Quit India Resolution (August 8, 1942).
The British were asked to leave India forthwith. The moving spirit behind the resolution was Gandhiji. The Quit India Movement was the greatest challenge to the British empire.